STUDY: HOMOPHOBIC SOCIAL PRESSURES CORRELATES WITH VIOLENCE IN GAY RELATIONSHIPS
No surprise to AGFC, homophobia has been proven over and over to be a destructive phenomenon that tears at the very fabric of society.
A new study shows that in six countries, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) among gays correlated with experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalised homophobia and heterosexist social pressures.
Find abstract here: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22900124
Find full study here: Interpersonal Violence Study
Intimate Partner Violence and Social Pressure among Gay Men in Six Countries.
Recent research suggests that men who have sex with men (MSM) experience intimate partner violence (IPV) at significantly higher rates than heterosexual men. Few studies, however, have investigated implications of heterosexist social pressures – namely, homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heterosexism – on risk for IPV among MSM, and no previous studies have examined cross-national variations in the relationship between IPV and social pressure. This paper examines reporting of IPV and associations with social pressure among a sample of internet-recruited MSM in the United States (U.S.), Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Brazil.
We recruited internet-using MSM from 6 countries through selective banner advertisements placed on Facebook. Eligibility criteria were men age over 18 reporting sex with a man in the past year. Of the 2,771 eligible respondents, 2,368 had complete data and were included in the analysis. Three outcomes were examined: reporting recent experience of physical violence, sexual violence, and recent perpetration of physical violence. The analysis focused on associations between reporting of IPV and experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity.
Reporting of experiencing physical IPV ranged from 5.75% in the U.S. to 11.75% in South Africa, while experiencing sexual violence was less commonly reported and ranged from 2.54% in Australia to 4.52% in the U.S. Perpetration of physical violence ranged from 2.47% in the U.S. to 5.76% in South Africa. Experiences of homophobic discrimination, internalized homophobia, and heteronormativity were found to increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries.
There has been little data on IPV among MSM, particularly MSM living in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the lack of consensus in demographic correlates of violence reporting, heterosexist social pressures were found to significantly increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries. These findings show the universality of violence reporting among MSM across countries, and highlight the unique role of heteronormativity as a risk factor for violence reporting among MSM. The results demonstrate that using internet-based surveys to reach MSM is feasible for certain areas, although modified efforts may be required to reach diverse samples of MSM.
Other things the study mentioned:
– “Third, despite the lack of consistency observed between demographic correlates and violence across the 6 countries of interest, heteronormative social pressures were found to significantly increase odds of reporting IPV in all countries. That is, while the influence of different manifestations of heterosexist social pressure did vary across countries, the experience of any form of heterosexism consistently emerged from the data as a risk factor for reporting of IPV in all countries.”
– “This finding suggests that MSM who more explicitly report experiencing heteronormative pressures may be at increased risk for IPV, regardless of their geographic location, age, race, or education, and indicates that there may be associations between violence and homophobia that are necessarily unique to MSM.”
– “One possible way that homophobia and heterosexism may increase risk for IPV among MSM would be through larger processes of social stigmatization and marginalization, as posited by Minority Stress theory. For example, a lack of formal recognition of gay partnerships through civil unions or marriage may position MSM at a primarily increased risk of experiencing violence from their partners due to the lack of safeguards against IPV normally afforded married or otherwise legally recognized couples.”
“Alternatively, there may be direct effects of heterosexist social pressure on MSM. For example, MSM who feel that they must hide their sexuality may feel less able negotiate un-coerced sex with male partners, or MSM with higher levels of internalized homophobia may report higher levels of sexual violence and sexual coercion owing to their reported lack of acceptance of their homosexual thoughts and behaviors.“