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A bombshell exploded when Beenie man declared in an interview to “The Advocate“, a popular gay magazine, that gays in Jamaica were not like what they were abroad because they are mostly child molesters. 1 Almost immediately, gays and lesbians were hit again with the familiar charge that homosexuality and paedophilia are linked. He said:
You have place in the Caribbean where gay and lesbian is legal like Barbados and a few more places. But Jamaica is a place where it’s just bent one way because gay in Jamaica is not like it is in America. It’s mostly big men with money going down in the ghetto and turning the local youths so you call that statutory (rape) or child molestation. They convince the youth that they are this way…and me know enough youth this way. That’s why when it comes to gay murder in Jamaica, it’s so vicious. With local youth, they can’t go back to their life that they used to know. And then (the rich men) use them and go find the next youth to use. So people need to understand that in Jamaica it’s a different lifestyle. It’s not like two men come together and say I like (to date men). That’s not the way it is in Jamaica. So right now until that finished and the youth stop getting kidnapped and found raped and thrown in a bush…until that stops and gays and lesbians speak out against child rapists and all of these things, then the government will see where they’re coming from. You can’t beat up on the government when you don’t understand what the government is fighting for. They’re not fighting against (gays). In the government in Jamaica right now, me sure you can find a few gay people. But the whole Caribbean needs support because the (rapes) have to stop.
Even in more pro-gay societies such as the United States, anti-gay activists proudly declare this charge:
While pro-homosexual activists like to claim that pedophilia is a completely distinct orientation from homosexuality, evidence shows a disproportionate overlap between the two. Although almost all child molesters are male and less than 3% of men are homosexual, about a third of all child sex abuse cases involve men molesting boys.2
— Tony Perkins,Family Research Council
Shortly after this interview, the Jamaica Gleaner reported that a thirty-eight-year-old security guard, Colin Manragh, pleaded guilty to charges of indecent assault and carnal abuse on a fifteen year old school girl3 . The girl had been sexually assaulted several times since she was 12 years old. Colin Manragh was caught confessing to molesting her when the girl handed over a taped telephone conversation over to the police.
In this case, the sexual orientation of the predator was never mentioned or implied to be a reason for his crime. However, in another Jamaica Observer news report, the headline said “Accused gay molester killed” where a man who police say was accused of raping little boys in Tivoli Gardens in Kingston was among at least three persons shot dead.4 Psychotherapist and author Joe Kort makes it clear that when molest little girls they are called “sexual predators” or “paedophiles” by the media and society but when men molest little boys they are called “homosexuals” or “gay” as though their sexual orientation is the reason they committed this crime.5
Gay men are often singled out as molesting children at much higher rates than heterosexual men out of proportion to the gay population. Anti-gay activists claim when they make the following paedophilia argument: 6
- Almost all sexual offences against children are committed by men.
- Gays make up a tiny portion of the population.(They usually cite between 1-3%)
- A very large portion of children who are molested are boys
- Therefore, gay men are committing a disproportionate share of sexual crimes against children
Child sexual abuse as a very negative effect on our families and society at large. Because we want to protect our children from predators we must ask : Are gays more likely to be child molesters?
The First Point: What Do We Know About Predators And Their Victims?
When it comes on crime statistics we know surprisingly little about child sexual abuse. Official statistics are often inadequate as many cases are not reported.
Researchers believe that male victims who are molested do not come forward to report to report the matter to the police because of the stigma associated with homosexuality in society. Many fear that if they do they will be labelled as gay and face harassment or condemnation because of it. Fortunately, our society has been very sympathetic to these victims when they come forward and their example has, no doubt, emboldened other victims to do the same. The tragedy of the child sex scandal of the Roman Catholic Church surely helped in lowering the stigma associated with same-sex abuse, helping victims to come forward7
When women molest boys the picture is different. Sociologists and caseworkers note that when a woman is involve with an under-aged boy he often doesn’t complain as he doesn’t feel as though he is being molested. They are more likely to brag about it to their friends who in turn admire them more for being a “man” to have the “privilege” of having sex with an older woman.8 In one study of adult men who had their first sexual experience with an adult female before they were 16 years old, 88% of them called it a positive experience.9
Since there is little incentive in our culture to view this as harmful and thus child sexual abuse statistics are skewed. Only recently is it being recognised that when older women exploit younger boys they can be harmed by the encounter.10
Experts also agree that official statistics underestimate actual sexual abuses cases. In the United States, one national probability-sampled survey of 4008 adult women who were raped in childhood found than less than 12% of these incidents were reported to police.11
With so many cases not being reported we cannot know the true proportion of males versus females who are victims. Using surveys done we can guess the true amount. Some of them from the United States say:
- As of July 2000, about 94% of all sexual predators against juveniles who were reported to police were male,12 although the proportion of female predators being reported has risen sharply in recent years.13
- Using the best estimates from multiple sources, males appear to make up somewhere between 15% and 30% of all child molestation victims, with females making up the remaining cases.14
According to the above statistics it appears as though the American anti-gay activists are true that almost all child molesters are men. However, the one-third figure that anti-gay activists cite for the ratio of male to female victims represents the very highest end of the range which makes the “problem of homosexual molestation” appear worse than it actually is.
How Many Gay/Bisexual Men Are There?
We definitely know that the proportion of self-described gay or bisexual men to the 30% of male sexual abuse cases anti-gay activists cite is very small. Many of these anti-gay advocates put the number of gay men to 1-3% of the population,however, most large population surveys suggest that the figure is much higher.15,16 For this discussion, let us use the worst case scenario and accept the 3% figure.
Let us say we gathered 1000 individuals in a large auditorium and asked the one simple yes/no question: “Are you gay”? If our 3% figure is correct only 30 people would answer “yes” while the remaining 970 would say “no”.
For those that answered “yes”what would we know about them? Most people would assume that it means that they date the same sex, they are attracted to the same sex and since he feels comfortable enough to write “yes” on the clipboard of a stranger asking members of the audience their sexual orientation he is probably also out to his friends and family. In other words, visibly out gay men and women are usually the ones who answer “yes” on these types of surveys.
How are we so sure that this three percent represents those who are “out”? According to a recent online survey by Harris interactive, 92% of those who identifies as gay were out to their close friends, 78% were out to their parents, 68% were out to other relatives, acquaintances and casual friends and 66% were out to co-workers.17
What is also worthy of note is that many surveys do not show all of those who are behaving homosexually. This includes men who have sex with men but do not identify themselves as gay. They sometimes also exclude bisexual men from the figure even though they also engage in same-sex sexual conduct.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 57% of men who had sex with men did not consider themselves to be gay or bisexual.18 A random survey of 4193 men in New York City showed that 91.3% of the respondents claimed they were straight, 9.3% of the “straight” respondents had sex with another man in the past year , while 0.8% of those same respondents has sex with both men and women.19When the authors surveyed men who have sex with men they fond that 73% of them identified as straight.There is also a representative study which found that 20% of all men has had a gay experience.20
These figures still do not include those who are not willing to admit whether or not they are gay or have sex with another man. These men could be quite a lot but we do not know how many are hiding. Let us look at some surveys from countries that have aimed to find how many gay or bisexual men there are:
- The largest and most thorough survey in Australia to date was conducted by telephone interview with 19,307 respondents between the ages of 16 and 59 in 2001/2002. The study found that 97.4% of men identified as heterosexual, 1.6% as gay and 0.9% as bisexual. For women 97.7% identified as heterosexual, 0.8% as lesbian and 1.4% as bisexual. Nevertheless, 18.6% of men and 15.1% of women reported either feelings of attraction to the same gender or some sexual experience with the same gender. Half the men and two-thirds of the women who had same-sex sexual experience regarded themselves as heterosexual rather than homosexual.
- A random survey in Denmark found that 2.7% of the 1,373 men who responded to their questionnaire had homosexual experience (intercourse).21
- A study of 20,055 people in France found that 4.1% of the men and 2.6% of the women had at least one occurrence of intercourse with person of the same sex during their lifetime.22
- A study of 8,337 British men found that 6.1% have had a “homosexual experience” and 3.6% had “1+ homosexual partner ever.”23
- The National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior interviewed nearly 6,000 people nationwide between the ages of 14 and 94 found that 7 percent of women and 8 percent of men identify as gay, lesbian or bisexual.24
- CNN exit polling showed self-identified gay, lesbian, and bisexual voters at 4% of the voting population in the United States presidential election, 2008.25
- Cornell University, carrying out research into sexuality amongst a representative sample of more than 20 000 young Americans, published that 14.4% of young women self-identified as being sexual and either lesbian or bisexual, while 5.6% of young men self-identified as being sexual and either gay or bisexual.26
From these studies we can therefore estimate the gay and bisexual male population to be a bout 1-8% of the population.27
Breaking Down The Statistical Breakdown
Now that we know more about statistics regarding sexual orientation let us revisit the anti-gay arguments we initially identified.
- Almost all sex crimes against children are committed by men.
This appears to be true because the overwhelming majority of child abuse cases reported to the police are done by men. Though, reports of women abusing children have been increasing.
- A very large portion of children who are molested are boys.
Not true. According to the Office of the Children’s Registry in Jamaica there were , 7245 reports of sexual abuse between the period 2007-2011. During that same period 429 boys were sexually molested which represents 5.9% of the total abuse cases.28 If we chose the worst case scenario and assumed that each boy was sexually molested by one man this would mean that the amount of gay or bisexual men would be in proportion to the amount of boys sexually molested as 5.9% falls within the 1-8% of the male population we estimated earlier as being gay or bisexual.
- Gays make up a tiny minority of the population (i.e., somewhere between 1% and 3%).
This is a low end of the range figure. These low estimates usually exclude bisexuals, men who have sex with men but do not identify as gay and men who have sex with men but do not want to admit that they are.
- Therefore, gay men are committing a disproportionate share of sexual crimes against children.
Society might feel so because of media reports but according to the official data this isn’t so. The amount of boys sexually molested falls within the range of the gay and bisexual male population. Anti-gay activists usually love to cherry-pick and arrive at their own conclusions.
Because of the flaws with these statistics and the badly made up three percent figure there is absolutely no way one can draw the conclusion that gay men disproportionately molest children. However, because we do not know how many men who behave homosexually are not molesting children disproportionately whether or not they are gay or bisexual. This means that we have to look more closely at the predators themselves in order to know what is actually going on.
Are Men Who Molest Boys Gay Men?
During the 1992 campaign for Colorado’s anti-discrimination Amendment 2, Colorado For Family Values, claimed that 3% of the population was responsible for 30% of all child abuse cases. Denver area caseworkers, doctors and investigators, however, disagreed with this conclusion. The Family Research Council has this same charge on this website to this day.
Dr. Carole Jenny was the director of the Child Advocacy and Protection Team at Denver’s Childrens Hospital, and she also directed medical programs at the C. Henry Kempe National Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect. She and her colleagues reviewed, 269 medical records children in the Denver area who were sexually molested by adults. Of the 50 male children, 74% of them were molested by men who had been in a heterosexual relationship with one of the child’s relatives. Three were molested by women, five were molested by both parents and three others were molested by non-relatives. Only one of the predators could be identified as possibly being gay.29
What does this mean? Let us assume we packed all these men who molested boys into an auditorium. If we asked them “Are you gay” only one would answer “yes” to our question while the rest would answer “no”. Not only did they say “no” but they had girlfriends, were married or had previously had some sexual relationship with a woman. If the police had been looking for child molesters among gay men they would have only found one because the 49 would have been hidden in the auditorium with the 970 people “straight” people we had talked about earlier.
Dr. Jenny and her colleagues concluded that even using the worst case scenario, no more than 3.1% of child sexual abuse cases would be done by gay men. Not surprisingly, this figure now closely matches the gay and bisexual male population rather than the 30% figure.
Regressed And Fixated Predators
Dr. Groth is a leading pioneer in the field of child sexual abuse and he treated more than 500 sex offenders by 1982.30 In 1978, he and his colleague published of 175 male convicted child molesters. It said:
The child offender is a relatively young adult either who has been sexually attracted to underage persons almost exclusively in his life or who turns to a child as a result of stresses in his adult sexual or marital relationships. Those offenders who are sexually attracted exclusively to children show a slight preference for boys over girls, yet these same individuals are uninterested in adult homosexual relationships. In fact, they frequently express a strong sexual aversion to adult males.31
Dr. Groth found two types of child molesters which he named “regressed” and “fixated”.32 The fixated child molester is one which lives life as a child and thinks like a child. In other words, he doesn’t grow up to be attracted to adults but sees children as his peers and people to form relationships with. Other around him will think he is someone who is very friendly with children and bonds with them easily and thus will gain their trust as a role model or proper guardian. This “fixated” child molester would fit the proper definition of a paedophile as he is neither homosexual nor heterosexual but only attracted to children and does not enjoy adult relationships.
The “regressed” child molester’s attraction to children is only temporary however. Unlike the “fixated” child molester, the “regressed” is attracted to adults but because of certain circumstance such as difficulties forming adult relationships or the stresses that come with it he will turn to children instead. This attraction to children may change during his lifetime as stresses with adult relationships increase or decrease.
In some cases, the “regressed” child molester might relate to children as a peer temporarily like the “fixated” but will only to so as a rebellion against the difficulties of life and so children become a very easy target. The “regressed” might find a convenient power relationship with a child that he does not get with an adult which more than often leads to violence. Regardless of the relationship, however, the child’s gender is not relevant as it is the power that comes along with the relationship that attracts him.
These “regressed” offenders are usually heterosexual in their relationships with adults. They marry women, have girlfriends and are attracted to women. Dr. Goth and his colleague, Dr. Birnhaum emphasised the following in their study:
In over 12 years of clinical experience working with child molesters, we have yet to see any example of a regression from an adult homosexual orientation. The child offender who is also attracted to and engaged in adult relationships is heterosexual.33
Though Dr Goth made this point very clear we should not assume that homosexual men in adult relationships do not molest children. However, we are just making it clear that the experts say the phenomenon is a rare one.
Are These “Heterosexual” Molesters Lying?
Let us ask the burning question for a moment. Why would a heterosexual man molest boys? How can he not be homosexual even if he doesn’t consider himself this way?
This puzzled Dr. Kurt Freund and his colleagues at Clark institute of Psychiatry in Toronto, where convicted sexual molesters were sent for treatment. Using an instrument attached to their penis to measure arousal, Dr. Freund measured arousal in the penis while showing the subjects pictures of naked men, women and children.
The phallometric tests, as they are called,34 still again supported the conclusion that gay men are no more likely to be attracted to children than straight men. these tests supported the statements of the sexual offenders when they claimed to be gay or straight. Dr Freund said:
These studies show that only rarely are sex offenders against male children diagnosed as androphiles [homosexual in adult orientation] and that phallometric diagnosis of gynophilic [heterosexual in adult orientation] and androphilic volunteers almost always corresponds to their claimed erotic preference.35
According to how they responded to the nude pictures they were telling the truth. When they are heterosexual they are sexually aroused to women and when they are homosexual they are sexually aroused to men. However, surprisingly, Dr. Freund found that homosexual men are less attracted to boys than straight men.
“Heterosexual” Men Attracted To Boys? How Come?
Now that we found out that these offenders are not lying why do we say that they are heterosexual?36 Why would a heterosexual abuse a boy?
Dr. Marshall and his associates performed as similar set of phallometric tests on gay and straight men as Dr. Freund did. This time, however, they used more pictures of boys and girls covering a wider age span. They noticed that when a gay man was attracted to a male under 18 the boy was usually pubescent, somewhere in the 15-18 range, with developed adult genitalia and masculine secondary sexual features. When heterosexual men showed an attracted to an under 18-year-old boy, unlike the gay men, he was attracted to pre-pubescent boys(9-11). His study said:
Amongst the heterosexuals, the commonest remarks concerning attractive features of the victims, were that the young boys did not have any body hair and that their bodies were soft and smooth.38
This explains why straight are attracted to boys. They are attracted to the “feminine” features found in pre-pubescent males rather than “masculine” feature found in pubescent ones which gay men find appealing. The “feminine” features found in pre-pubescent boys are a turn-off for gay men.
“Homosexuality” and “Homosexual Molestation”
Researchers often push forward the notion that homosexuality and homosexual molestation are the same thing. If an adult male molests a boy, that is usually referred to as “homosexual molestation” simply because the victim and perpetrator are of the same sex. This terminology, however, leaves out the sexual orientation of the victim and perpetrator themselves.39
Unfortunately, researchers aren’t always careful in their academic writing when they use the word “homosexual”. “Homosexual abuse” merely refers to the same-sex nature of the victim and the offender but does not refer to the sexual orientation of the abuser or the victim. When they actually go to research the sexual orientation of the perpetrators they become more careful. Dr Freund prefers to sue the words “androphile” which means a person is attracted to adult men and “gynophile” which means a person is attracted to adult females. Peter Labarbera from the United States based , American for Truth About Homosexuality, claims “Who cares if a guy is married? If he’s molesting boys, that’s homosexual behavior. It’s academic nonsense to talk about these people as heterosexuals.”40 However, this is a simple way of thinking which makes many anti-gay activists hostile to Dr. Friend’s discovery.
Contrary to anti-gay opinion we know that this is not nonsense. If law enforcement were to look among child sexual abusers in the “out” so-called three percent of the population which are gay men, they would not find the majority of them as many of them are not homosexual, marry women, are attracted to them or do not form adult relationships.41
Firmly Established Anti-gay Weapon
Anti-gay activists do not ease up on spreading the misinformation. At the Family Research Council, a Christian anti-gay political advocacy group in the United States, Dr. Timothy Dailey who has a PhD in religion quoted one of Dr. Freund’s statement out of context which said “199 offenders against female children and 96 offenders against male children. This would indicate a proportional prevalence of 32 percent of homosexual offenders against children.”42 A usual the anti-gay movement cherry picks. He completely eliminated the next point which Dr. Freund made when he said:
Androphiles [homosexuals in adult orientation] actually responded significantly less to the male children.43
This point is the same point Dr. Freund made in 1982 which said:
The research to date all points to there being no significant relationship between a homosexual lifestyle and child molestation. There
appears to be practically no reportage of sexual molestation of girls by lesbian adults, and the adult male who sexually molests young
boys is not likely to be a homosexual.44
Someone who read Dr. Dailey’s work would not have seen what Dr. Freund actually said. Dr. Freund responded to him by saying:
Since your report, in my view, misrepresents the facts of what we know about this matter from scientific investigation, and does not indicate that my studies on this topic reach conclusions diametrically opposed to yours, I would appreciate your removing any reference to my work in your paper lest it appear to the reader that my research supports your views.45
Using Ignorance To Nauseate
The truth is the truth no matter how much it is ignored. Dr. Michael R. Stevenson conducted an exhaustive review of studies and the literature in 200 and said “a gay man is no more likely than a straight man to perpetrate sexual activity with children,” and “cases of perpetration of sexual behavior with a pre-pubescent child by an adult lesbian are virtually non-existent”.46 Major paediatric and child welfare organisations such as the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists47 and the America Psychological Association48 which says both agree and find no relationship with homosexuality and child sexual abuse.
The anti-gay activists have read the same literature mentioned in this article but they prefer to ignore it in order to suit their agenda. They keep spreading their accusations because they know every parent fears the day their child is sexually molested and they jump on this tactic in order to further their agenda.
While this charge is harmful to gay men it is our children who are the real victims. As long as anti-gay activists continue to lay the charge on gay men then the real child predators will get away with their actions and will never be found. Everyone will be focusing on gay men while children’s lives will be shattered knowing they trusted someone close to them who destroyed their future.
We must not allow entertainers, politicians, church leaders and members of the anti-gay movement to jeopardise out children’s future in order to further their anti-gay agenda. The consequences are too severe for our future generation.
- Akim Bryant. “EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW: Beenie Man Apologizes”, The Advocate. Available online at : http://www.advocate.com/arts-entertainment/music/2012/08/01/exclusive-interview-beenie-man-apologizes
- Perkins, Tony. “Pro-homosexual political correctness sowed seeds for Foley scandal.” Web site, Washington Update.
(Family Research Council; October 2, 2006): http://www.frc.org/get.cfm?i=WU06J01.
- Gayle, Barbara (2012, August 3). Man Gets 15 Years For Molesting Teen. The Daily Gleaner. Retrieved from http://jamaica-gleaner.com/latest/article.php?id=39003
- Robinson, Corey (2011, January 16). Accused gay molester killed. The Jamaica Observer. Retrieved from http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/Accused-gay-molester-killed_8295820
- Kort, Joe. “Homosexuality and pedophilia: The false link”. Kort’s Corner no. 38 (2005). http://www.joekort.com/articles50.htm (accessed September 21, 2005).
- For example, see the following: Cameron, Paul. Brochure: “Child molestation and homosexuality.” (Family Research Institute: 1999). Available online at http://www.familyresearchinst.org/Default.aspx?tabid=71. Dailey, Timothy J. “Homosexuality and child sexual abuse.” Insight (Family Research Council: May 23, 2002). Available online at http://www.frc.org/get.cfm?i=IS02E3. Traditional Values Coalition. Pamphlet: “Exposed: homosexual Child molesters.” (Undated). Available online at http://www.traditionalvalues.org/pdf_files/HomosexualChildMolestersUrban.pdf.
- Finkelhor, David. “Commentary: The legacy of the clergy abuse scandal.” Child Abuse & Neglect 27 (2003): 1225-1229.
- Holmes, William C.; Slap, Gail B. “Sexual abuse of boys: Definition, prevalence, correlates, sequelae, and management.” Journal of the American Medical Association 280, no. 21 (Dec. 2, 1998): 1855-1862. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=9846781
- Okami, Paul. “Self-reports of ‘positive’ childhood and adolescent sexual contacts with older persons: An exploratory study.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 20, no. 5 (October, 1991): 437-457. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1747040.
- Koch, Wendy. “More women charged in sex cases: Double standard over molestation charges, arrests could be fading.” USA Today (November 30, 2005): 3A. Available online at http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-11-29-womensex-crimes_x.htm.
- Hanson, Rochelle F.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Best, Connie. “Factors related to the reporting of childhood rape.” Child Abuse and Neglect 23, no. 6 (June 1999): 559-569. Abstract available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(99)00028-9.
- Snyder, Howard N. Sexual Assault of Young Children As Reported To Law Enforcement: Victim, Incident, and Offender Characteristics (Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. NCJ-182990, July, 2000). Available online at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/saycrle.pdf
- Shakeshaft, Charol. Educator sexual misconduct: A synthesis of existing literature (Washington, DC: US Department of Education, June, 2004). Available online at http://www.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/misconductreview/report.pdf.
- Finkelhor, David. “Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse.” The Future of Children: Sexual Abuse of Children 4, no. 2 (Summer 1994): 31-53. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?md=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=7804768.
- Smith, Tom W. American Sexual Behavior: Trends, SocioDemographic Differences, and Risk Behavior. (April 2003) Chicago: National Opinion Research Center; shows that in 2002, 3.3% of men and 2.6% of women participated in exclusively same-gender sexual activity in the preceding twelve months. The survey notes that these percentages fluctuate depending the length of time in which the same-gendered sexual activity occurs, (12 months vs. 5 years) and the age of the respondents. For example, 5.1% of all men aged 30-39 participated in same-gendered sexual activity in the past five years, and 3.7% of all women aged 30-39 participated in same-gendered sexual activity in the past five years. This survey also reviewed numerous other surveys between 1970 and 1997 that indicated percentages of adult Americans with same-gendered sexual partners or identifying with homosexual/bisexual orientation ranging from 1.6% to 6.5%, depending on the definitions and methodologies used.
- Mosher, William D.; Chandra, Anjani D.; Jones, Jo. “Sexual behavior and selected health measure: Men and women 15-44 years of age, United States, 2002” Advance Data From Vital and Health Statistics; No 362 (Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics, September 15, 2005). Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad362.pdf. Of men aged 18-44, 90% identified as heterosexual, 2.3% homosexual, 1.8% bisexual, 3.9% “something else”, and 1.8% did not answer. Of women aged 18-44, 90% identified as heterosexual, 1.3% homosexual, 2.8% bisexual, 3.8% “something else”, and 1.8% did not answer. Unknown numbers those who answered “something else” may have objected to the term “homosexual”, preferring “gay” or “lesbian”, as many gays and lesbians find the term “homosexual” offensive.
- Harris Interactive. Press release: “Seven out of ten heterosexuals today know someone gay.” PR Newswire (October 11, 2006). Available online at http://sev.prnewswire.com/computer-electronics/20061010/NYTU15810102006-1.html.
- Mosher, William D.; Chandra, Anjani D.; Jones, Jo. “Sexual behavior and selected health measure: Men and women 15-44 years of age, United States, 2002” Advance Data From Vital and Health Statistics; No 362 (Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics, September 15, 2005): 30. Available online at http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/ad/ad362.pdf.
- Pathela, Preeti; Hajat, Anjum; Scjillinger, Julia; Blank, Susan; Sell, Randall; Mostashari, Farzad. “Discordance between sexual behavior and self-reported sexual identity: A population-based survey of New York City men.” Annals of Internal Medicine 145, no. 6 (September 19, 2006): 416-425. Full text available online at http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/145/6/416.
- Seidman, Stuart H.; Reider, Ronald O. “A review of sexual behavior in the United States” American Journal of Psychiatry 151, No. 3 (Mar 1994): 330-339. Abstract available online at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/151/3/330.
- Sex in Australia: The Australian study of health and relationships, Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society. (Published as the Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health vol 27 no 2.)
- Melbye M, Biggar RJ (March 1992). “Interactions between persons at risk for AIDS and the general population in Denmark” . Am. J. Epidemiol. 135 (6): 593–602. PMID 158023
- AIDS and sexual behaviour in France. ACSF investigators”. Nature 360 (6403): 407–9. December 1992. doi:10.1038/360407a0 . PMID 1448162
- Johnson AM, Wadsworth J, Wellings K, Bradshaw S, Field J (December 1992). “Sexual lifestyles and HIV risk”. Nature 360 (6403): 410–2. doi:10.1038/360410a0 . PMID 1448163
- National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior. Nationalsexstudy.indiana.edu. Retrieved on 2010-10-26.
- CNN Exit Polls. Available here: http://edition.cnn.com/ELECTION/2008/results/polls/#val=USP00p3
- “Sax on Sex: The emerging science of sex differences”. Psychology Today. 3 April 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
- Clark, Mary (2012, May 25). Child Sex Abuse Numbers Alarming. The Gleaner. Retrieved from http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20120525/lead/lead95.html
- Jenny, Carole; Roesler, Thomas A.; Poyer, Kimberly L. “Are children at risk for sexual abuse by homosexuals?” Pediatrics 94, no. 1 (1994): 41-44. Abstract available online at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/94/1/41.
- Groth, A. Nicholas; Hobson, William F.; Gary, Thomas S. “The child molester: clinical observations.” In Social Work and Child Sexual Abuse. Edited by Jon R. Conte and David A. Shore. (New York: Haworth Press. 1982): 129-144
- Groth, A. Nicholas; Birnbaum, H Jean. “Adult sexual orientation and attraction to underage persons.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 7 no. 3 (1978): 175-181. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=666571.
- Groth, A. Nicholas; Hobson, William F.; Gary, Thomas S. “The child molester: clinical observations.” In Social Work and Child Sexual Abuse. Edited by Jon R. Conte and David A. Shore. (New York: Haworth Press. 1982): 129-144.
- Groth, A. Nicholas; Birnbaum, H. Jean. “Adult sexual orientation and attraction to underage persons.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 7, no. 3 (1978): 175-181. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=666571. Emphasis in the original.
- There is considerable controversy surrounding the use of phallometric devices (otherwise known as plethysmography). Much of the controversy stems from why these devices were developed and how they were first used. One of the early developers of plethysmography, Dr. Kurt Freund, began his work in Czechoslovakia in the 1950’s, where these methods were used to prosecute homosexuals in civil society and to weed out homosexuals in the military. What’s more, phallometic measurements were later used to determine whether homosexual men were cured of their “affliction,” often following some of the barbaric treatments which were common at the time. Some of these treatments involve injecting the “patient” with apomorphine, which causes extreme nausea, wretching and vomiting, and the use of electric shock. This inauspicious history has cast an exceptionally dark shadow on the ethics of plethysmography from the very start. Complaints about the use of plethysmography intensified when Dr. Freund continued his work at the Clarke Institute in Toronto, where transgender sex-reassignment surgery candidates were referred for psychiatric evaluation and subjected to sexual orientation evaluation. This occurred despite the fact that transgender experience has little to do with sexual orientation or attraction. These experiments were seen as an outrageous invasion of their privacy. And since the Clarke Institute was the primary treatment center for sexual offenders, this was seen as the most personally invasive part of a very humiliating process. Bancroft, John. “The application of psychophysiological measures to the assessment and modification of sexual behaviour.” Behaviour Research and Therapy 9 (1971): 119-130. Freund, Kurt; Diamant, J.; Pinkava, V. “On the validity and reliability of the phaloplethysmographic diagnosis of some sexual deviations” Review of Czech Medicine 7 (1958): 145-151. Freund, Kurt. “Laboratory differential diagnosis of homo- and heterosexuality: An experiment with faking” Review of Czech Medicine 7 (1961): 20-31. Freund, Kurt. “A Laboratory method for diagnosing predominance of homo- or hetero- erotic interest in the male” Behaviour Research and Therapy 1, no. 1 (1963): 85-93. McConaghy, Nathaniel. “Subjective and penile plethysmograph responses following aversion-relief and apomorphine aversion therapy for homosexual impulses.” British Journal of Psychiatry 115, no. 523 (June 1969): 723-730
- Freund, Kurt; Watson, Robin J.; Rienzo, Douglas. “Heterosexuality, homosexuality, and the erotic age preference.” Journal of Sex Research 26, no. 1 (1989): 107-117.
- There has been considerable discussion concerning the validity of plethysmography. Like polygraphs, plethysmography results are not admissible in a court of law. There are no standards for measuring sexual attraction, and individuals respond very differently from one another.
- For this reason, phallometric tests are not universally accepted as diagnostic tools — they cannot prove that a given individual is gay, straight, or attracted to children. But they are useful in assessing how large groups of people respond generally to different situations, which is what we are discussing here. One point of contention centers on whether test subjects can fake their physical responses to sexual stimuli. Most researchers who have looked into this have noted that while some test subjects can suppress their response to sexual stimuli (by not paying attention or ignoring the photos and spoken descriptions, for example), it was rare for a gay subject to be able to consciously fake an arousal in the presence of heterosexual stimulation or vice versa. More information can be found in the following sources: Adams, Henry E.; Motsinger, Patrice; McAnulty, Richard D.; Moore, Aubrey L. “Voluntary control of penile tumescence among homosexual and heterosexual subjects.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 21, no. 1 (February 1992): 17-31. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1546933Mahoney, John M.; Strassberg, Donald S. “Voluntary control of male sexual arousal.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 21, no.1 (Feb, 1991): 1-16. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2003767.McAnulty, Richard D.; Adams, Henry E. “Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: a reply toMcConaghy.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 21, no. 2 (April1992): 187-195. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=1580788.
- Marshal, W.L.; Barbaree, H.E.; Butt, Jennifer. “Sexual offenders against male children: Sexual preferences.” Behaviour Research and Therapy 26, no. 5 (1988): 383-391.
- Newton, David E. “Homosexuals behavior and child molestation: A review of the evidence.” Adolescence 13, no. 49 (Spring, 1978): 29-43. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=665354.
- Walker, Ken. “Homosexuals more likely to molest kids, study reports.” Baptist Press News, (May 30, 2001) http://sbcbaptistpress.org/bpnews.asp?ID=11002 (accessed July 29, 2005).
- Jenny, Carole; Roesler, Thomas A.; Poyer, Kimberly L. “Are children at risk for sexual abuse by homosexuals?” Pediatrics 94, no. 1 (1994): 41-44. Abstract available online at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/94/1/41.
- Dailey, Timothy J. “Homosexuality and child sexual abuse.” Insight (Family Research Council: May 23, 2002). Available online at http://www.frc.org/get.cfm?i=IS02E3.
- Freund, Kurt; Heasman, Gerald; Racansky, I.G.; Glancy, Graham. “Pedophilia and heterosexuality vs. homosexuality.” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 10, no. 3 (1984): 193-200. Abstract available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=6512871.
- Groth, A. Nicholas; Gary, T.S. “Heterosexuality, homosexuality and pedophilia: Sexual offenses against children and adult sexual orientation.” In Male Rape: A Casebook of Sexual Aggressions, edited by A.M. Scacco (New York: AMS Press, 1982): 132-152.
- Groth, A. Nochilas. Letter to Timothy J. Dailey, Ph. D., Family Research Council. June 10, 2002. Included in the Human Rights Campaign’s press release dated June 14, 2002, http://www.hrc.org/Content/ContentGroups/News_Releases/20021/Researcher_Cited_in_Anti-Gay_Report_Criticizes_the_Study_as_Biased_and_Misleading.htm. While Dr. Groth’s study has been removed from the footnotes, it was still referenced indirectly in Dailey’s article as of March 28, 2005.
- Stevenson, Michael R. “Public policy, homosexuality, and the sexual coercion of children.” Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality 12, no. 4 (2000): 1-19.
- American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Policy statement: Sexual Orientation and Civil Rights (October 1992). Available online at http://www.aacap.org/page.ww?section=Policy+Statements&name=Sexual+Orientation+and+Civil+Rights. According to the policy statement, the AACAP “finds that there is no evidence that lesbians and gay men, per se, represent any threat to the development of child or adolescents.”
- American Psychological Association. Resolution on Sexual Orientation, Parents and Children. (July 2004) Available online at http://www.apa.org/pi/lgbc/policy/parentschildren.pdf. According to the policy statement, the APA states that “fears about children of lesbian or gay parents being sexually abused by adults, ostracized by peers or isolated in single-sex lesbian or gay communities have received no scientific support.”
- Citizens Project. “CFV holds ‘Community Watch’ seminars.” Freedom Watch (April-May, 1993).